Mammals are among the most adoptable animals on the planet. They are found on every continent and in every ocean, and range in size from tiny bumblebee bats to enormous blue whales. One reason for their success is the way they move. Terrestrial species walk, run, jump, climb, hog, swing. Aquatic ones swim, shuffle and dive. A few even fly. Mammal bones essentially skulls are used for identification and to work out the evolutionary history of each species. Living mammals are divided into the Yintheria and Theriiformes . The mammals represent the only living synapsida, which together with the souropsida form the Amniotoclade.


Some mammals are intelligent, with some possessing large brains, self – awareness and tooluse. Mammals can communicate and vocalize in several different ways, including the production of ultrasound, scent-marketing and echolocation. In human culture, domesticated mammals played a major role in farming, hunting, gathering and leading to a major restructing of human societies withe the first civilizations. They provide and continue to provide power for transport and agriculture as well as dairy products, milk, leather.

Sound Production-

Mammals have an larynx that can quickly open and close to produce sounds and a supralaryngeal vocal track which filters this sound. The larynx controls the pitch and volume of sound, but the strength the lungs exert to exhale also contributes to volume. Some mammals have a large larynx and thus a low – pitched voice, namely the hammer headed bat where the larynx can take up the entirety of the thoracic cavity while pushing the lungs, heart and trached into the abdomen. Large vocal pads can also lower the pitch, as in the low-pitched roars of big coats.


The fur of mammals has many uses protection, sensory purposes, water proofing and camouflage with the primary usage being thermoregulation. The types of hair include definitive, which may be shed after reaching a certain length; which are sensory hairs and are most commonly whiskers. Which consists of many guard hairs, under fur and awn hairs; spines which are a type of stiff guard hair used to defense Mammalian coats are colored For a variety of reasons, the major selective pressures including camouflage, sexual selection, communication and physiological processes such as temperature regulation. Camouflage is a powerful influence in a large number of mammals, as it helps to conceal individuals from predators or prey.


The reptiles and some mammals such as humans and bears walking on the whole of the underside of the foot. Many mammals, such as cats and dogs, are digitigrade, walking on their toes, greadter stride length allowing more speed. Digitigrade mammals are also often adopt at quiet movement. some animals such as horses are ungaligrade walking on the tips of their toes. This even further increases their stride length and thus their speed. Digitigrade mammals are also often adopt at quiet movement. Some animals such as horses are ungaligrade walking on the tips of their toes. This even further increases there stride length and thus there speed. Animals will use different gaits for different speeds, terrain and situations.


Flipper movement is continuous. Whales swim by moving their flippers are mainly used for steering. Most species have a dorsal fin to prevent themselves from turning upside-down side in the water. Semi aquatic mammals like pinnipeds have two pairs of flippers on the front and back, the fore – flippers and hind – flippers. The elbows and ankles are enclosed within the body. Pinnipeds have several adaptations for reducing drag.



To maintain a constant body temperature is energy expensive mammals therefore need a nutrients and plentiful diets.


Non human mammals play a wide variety of roles in human culture. They are most popular of pets, with tens of millions dogs, cats and other animals including rabbits. Many species of mammals have hunted for sport and for food. Domestic mammals form a large part of the livestock raised for meat across the world. Working domestic animals including cattle and horses are used for work and transport from the origins of agriculture, their numbers declining with the arrival of mechanized transport and agriculture of machinary. Wool from mammals like sheep and goats are used for centuries for clothing.


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